Balanced scorecard research papers

balanced scorecard research papers

In: Business and Management. According to Robert Kaplan and David Norton, the founders of the Balanced Scorecard, "The balanced scorecard retains traditional financial measures.

But financial measures tell the story of past events, an adequate story for industrial age companies for which investments in long-term capabilities and customer relationships were not critical for success.

These financial measures are inadequate, however, for guiding and evaluating the journey that information age companies must make to create future value through investment in customers, suppliers, employees, processes, technology, and innovation. The Balanced Scorecard offers management a system to use in plotting strategic objectives through four perspectives. Using the Balanced Scorecard my operating segment, Benefit Marketing Solutions, can examine an implement each of the four perspectives by obtaining information on how we can achieve Aon standards in the operation of our business segment.

Implementing the Balanced Scorecard, I will assess how our financials can improve by achieving the objectives of maximizing company profits, increasing our gross profit margin per client, and decreasing our accounts payable days. The first factor I will investigate is our customer perspective and how increasing customer loyalty, customer exposure, and customer education will improve upon our financials.

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The second factor I will investigate is the internal perspective and how effective company alliances, effective customer service, and effective payment of Due to the fact that balanced scorecard term is a generic, it is interpreted differently by different people, and in practice, there are wide variations in both understanding and implementation.

To some, the balanced scorecard is just a simple control panel indicating performance measures, while to others it is a inclusive planning and management system encompassing the whole organization and planned to focus efforts on business strategy and more significantly on performance and results. The balanced scorecard has steadily developed from its early use as a simple performance measurement framework for non-financial performance measures to a full strategic planning Some organizations has found certain drawbacks that have made them not to adopt this management tool.

The use of this instrument requires proper training and understanding of it thus making it time-consuming. The process of using it also requires accuracy as any slight mistake leads to undesired results. Due to the complexities of this management tool, many employees do not favor its implementation and may cause resistance. It requires higher costs to install as well as other maintenance costs. However, despite these costs, it is important for organizations to adopt this management tool due to its unmatched benefits.

The use of sensitivity analysis is very crucial during capital budgeting for a project. The sensitivity analysis helps in relaying the scenarios that will occur in case the assumptions made during the capital budgeting process do not materialize.

Managers can determine the extent of the effects that might occur if a project does not deliver. It makes sensitivity analysis a very crucial process during any capital budgeting process. It helps in Balanced Scorecard Key Concept Explanation The balanced scorecard, first introduced by Harvard business professor Robert Kaplan and business consultant David Norton, is a performance measurement system Peters, In the early 90s, as the concept of the balanced scorecard was introduced, companies largely used financial standards to measure performance.

The financial evaluations were highly focused and lacked an evaluation of strategic objective Janes, The balanced scorecard provides performance measurement that includes four main perspectives including financial, customer, internal business processes and learning and growth. Key performance indicators KPIs are chosen for each section based upon strategic objectives. Once established the KPIs can be laid out into a strategy map that creates an easy visual aid.

The strategy maps allows for easy dissemination from management to employees with clear understanding. The cause and effect relationship is advantageous due to its ability to allow qualitative questions to be determined.

The balanced scorecard is a commonly accepted performance measurement tool. The evaluation of performance can often be a difficult task. Particularly in the non-profit sector where the financial outlook may not paint a full picture, a balanced scorecard can Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work Managers recognize the impact that measures have no performance but they think that measurement is an essential part of strategy.

Effective management however is an integral part of management process.

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New strategies and process are being introduces to improve performance without examining whether old measures of performance are relevant or whether new one is necessary. The scorecard presents manager with four different perspectives from which to choose measures. This helps manager to see what tradeoffs they are making among their key success factors.They are very well written and offer excellent guidance, although some of the terminology is now out of date.

Strategic planners and managers in nonprofit and governmental organizations will find much valuable material here to adapt for their own uses. The Survey Handbook is particularly recommended for designing surveys that will form a foundation for any Balanced Scorecard implementation. This document is intended to provide an overview of some of the major elements of the Department of the Navy approach to total quality management, called Total Quality Leadership.

balanced scorecard research papers

The DoN TQL Primer covers the definition of TQL, the underlying philosophy, implementation roles, approach and management structure, and how the scientific method is applied to improve work processes. From the Foreword: The change from past management practices to TQL is substantial and impacts the jobs of every person in a naval organization.

Because of this, the transition to TQL must be learned, planned for, and put into place in a systematic fashion. This handbook was written for Department of the Navy commanding officers, TQL coordinators, and strategic planning facilitators in response to the many questions about the strategic planning process and how it should be conducted within the DON.

It is not intended to teach the intricacies of strategic planning, but is merely provided to answer process questions. To be successful, strategic planning requires commitment on the part of three people: the leader commanding officer of an organization, the TQL coordinator of that organization, and a strategic planning facilitator. This handbook delineates the roles and responsibilities of each and suggests a process by which the three, together, can point the organization toward its future.

Wells, is a companion volume to this handbook and details how organizations can deploy and implement their strategic plans. Wells and Linda M. These handbooks were designed to assist Department of the Navy executives, commanding officers, Total Quality Leadership coordinators, and strategic planning facilitators in leading the strategic management process.

Although the intended audience is the Department of the Navy, the guidance is equally useful to other government agencies and to the private sector.

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The guidance contained in Strategic Management for Senior Leaders was derived from lessons learned during extensive work with client organizations that were developing, deploying, and implementing strategic plans. This information was supplemented by research that included personal interviews with leaders from The Department of the Navy and other government agencies who have led strategic management efforts within their organizations. The Foreword explains that although each organization has its own distinctive culture and mission, there are lessons learned and successful strategies common to all.

This handbook was intended to bring them together so that others could apply them.

Balanced Scorecard

The Survey Handbook presents an overview of the activities and issues involved in developing and conducting a survey. It covers such topics as: preparing for a survey, constructing survey items, pilot testing, administration methods, analytic techniques, and sampling approaches.

This handbook will not make the reader an expert in surveys. It is strongly advised that professional assistance be obtained to conduct a survey, especially if a completely new survey is being developed. PDF KB. In the past, teams have struggled with how best to document process improvement efforts.In: Business and Management. The goals and measurements of those goals that were determined for Frozen Bliss LLC in the balanced scorecard were derived from the previously stated vision, mission, values and SWOTT analysis.

The smoothie industry has many growth opportunities, particularly with the advent of the health conscious individual who is looking for convenient alternatives to fast food. The following categories are breakdowns of each goal and how it relates to the overall strategy of Frozen Bliss. Financial In the financial category, Frozen Bliss is focused on obtaining a large percentage of the market share for their specific industry. This can be accomplished through the implementation and evaluation of the goals in each of the above categories.

Frozen Bliss does face competition from numerous other similar businesses, but through the constant effort of maintaining and achieving their mission and goals, the market share will be easier to garnish and maintain. Frozen Bliss intends on developing their national and international growth through the opening of many new locations across the globe.

By increasing their presence in different geographic areas, Frozen Bliss will naturally increase their brand awareness and thus increase their market share. The ultimate success of Frozen Bliss will be determined by a year round stable revenue that on average increases and does not decrease. The revenue should be evaluated on a quarterly basis to ensure that growth is taking It presents basic information on the Balanced Scorecard performance management methodology, and identifies key business issues that must be addressed in developing and deploying a balanced scorecard.

The paper then presents the Microsoft Balanced Scorecard Framework BSCF —a comprehensive set of techniques, tools, and best practices to speed scorecard implementation using toolsets with which organizations are familiar. An extensive body of research and literature describing the Balanced Scorecard exists. That body of knowledge is constantly being expanded by The Balanced Scorecard Collaborative, Balanced Scorecard Institute, various consulting organizations, software companies, and client organizations.

This paper cannot comprehensively cover such a complex topic or reflect accurately many of the nuances of scorecard development and implementation.

Instead, it presents a basic conceptual overview of the Balanced Scorecard. Interested readers are encouraged to use the bibliography presented at the end of this paper as a guide to more detailed This challenge is partly due to the fact that effective brand management requires an all-inclusive and comprehensive organizational approach. This paper proposes a framework that uses the balance scorecard BSC as the basis for brand management.

balanced scorecard research papers

The framework proposes both a proactive and reactive approach to brand management through the use of performance measures or perspectives, which form the underlying components of the BSC. These are the financial perspective, the customer perspective, process perspective, and the learning perspective.

The paper enhances and expands this BSC framework by including a brand maintenance and enhancement component. These four perspectives are used by managers in order to measure and analyze information. Kalpan and Norton explain these four perspectives which are According to Robert Kaplan and David Norton, the founders of the Balanced Scorecard, "The balanced scorecard retains traditional financial measures. But financial measures tell the story of past events, an adequate story for industrial age companies for which investments in long-term capabilities and customer relationships were not critical for success.

These financial measures are inadequate, however, for guiding and evaluating the journey that information age companies must make to create future value through investment in customers, suppliers, employees, processes, technology, and innovation.Future Control and Automation pp Cite as.

Balanced Scorecard Paper

The studies of integrating the Balanced Scorecard and system dynamics to carry though performance management get more and more attention. On the basis of the retrospect of the studies on the Dynamic Balanced Scorecard, proposes a set of Specific implementation procedures of it; gives the expectation of the development trend and some suggestions on the subsequent research.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. An Overview of Dynamic Balanced Scorecard. Conference paper. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Atkinson, A. Otley, D. Mooraj, S. Norrtklit, H. Todd, D. Malmi, T. Kasurinen, Tommi: Exploring management accounting change: the case of balanced scorecard implementation. Mccunn, P.

Ahn, H.Balanced scorecard is a management system that enables organizations to translate vision and strategy into action. This system provides feedback on internal business processes and external outcomes to continually improve organizational performance and results.

Robert Kaplan and David Norton created the balanced scorecard approach in the early s. Most traditional management systems focus on the financial performance of an organization. According to those who support the balanced scorecard, the financial approach is unbalanced and has major limitations:.

The balanced scorecard suggests that organizations should be viewed and measured from four different perspectives. These perspectives are as follows:. Using the balanced scorecard, companies create their own unique measures of these four aspects of the business. The specific measures that a company develops should reflect the specific drivers and strategy of the business. Kaplan and Norton recommend a nine-step process for creating and implementing the balanced scorecard in an organization.

There are many benefits and challenges to the balanced scorecard. The primary benefit is that it helps organizations translate strategy into action.

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By defining and communicating performance metrics related to the overall strategy of the company, the balanced scorecard makes the strategy come alive. It also enables employees at all levels of the organization to focus on important business drivers.

The main challenge of this system is that it can be difficult and time-consuming to implement. Kaplan and Norton originally estimated that it would take an organization a little more than 2 years to fully implement the system throughout the organization.

Some organizations implement in less time and some require more time. The bottom line is that the balanced score-card requires a sustained, long-term commitment at all levels in the organization for it to be effective.Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional academic writers. Here you can order a professional work.

Find a price that suits your requirements. Schmall and his team decided that the scorecard would be the means to accelerate the acceptance of the new strategy and culture. They wanted to use the scorecard to change the mindset of the company; essentially be the communicator from top all the way to the factory floor. The management team would assign objectives to a particular business unit and the objective owners would be responsible for seeing that the benchmarks were set, and the necessary resources were available to carry out the target goal Kaplan, R.

Dewhirst Group Plc manufactures and distributes clothing and toiletries. Schmall knew that change was needed and he wanted to develop a new strategy that would help to regain the leadership spot in his industry and the 1 position of producer in the South American Market.

He focused on building a strong management team that would lead the transformation. He wanted to get away from the previous strategy of reliance on cost reduction, employee layoffs, and downsizing. Together, the management team realized that they needed to focus on relationships with three major players in their business: employees, suppliers, and the dealers.

Step one was the creation of the strategy map that set forth the objectives that consisted of four major drivers: Financial, Customer, Internal Process, and Potential and Growth. The foundation of this map was the area of Potential and Growth.

Objectives were to develop attractive and innovative product portfolio, achieve a high-performing culture, and develop sustainability as a guiding principle. The next layer was focused on the internal processes where he wanted to strive to develop a more service-oriented culture among the dealers. Additionally, he wanted to reduce cost while improving quality and delivery of the suppliers, and lastly, improve the efficiency, cost, and the flexibility of the workforce and production system Kaplan, R Schmall and his team wanted to rebrand VWB as an innovator of high-quality vehicles.

The research started from a recurring phenomenon observed at Henley College that some teams performed better than others despite their homogeneity in terms of qualifications and How does the strategy map exhibit 4 and Balanced Scorecard exhibit 5 help Schmall and Senn implement the new strategy? These two tools, Strategy Map and Balanced Scorecard, helped to implement the new strategy in a few ways.

Overall, it helped to translate the strategy into objectives, monitor the progress, and communicate the objectives from upper management all the way to the shop floor.

balanced scorecard research papers

It was comprehensive and clear. Each dimensions objectives had defined metrics associated with them to illustrate what is necessary to overcome the challenge. The Balanced Scorecard was the perfect tool to measure, monitor and define these outcomes.

Along with the Balanced Scorecard was a matrix that listed each objective and with a set of actions that was assigned to the appropriate business unit that was responsible for monitoring and achieving their targets.

It allowed ownership, and with the CEO leading this transformation program and being supported by top management, it helped with buy-in from the employees. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the scorecard and its implementation? Yet, it has its weaknesses.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Graham Manville. Download Free PDF. Free PDF.

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Download PDF Package. Premium PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. This ensured that the issues were appraised in both an operational and a strategic context. Findings — The findings of this research are that balanced scorecards can be implemented within a SME context. However, the motivations for the adoption of the scorecard were both internal and external due to the heavily regulated nature of the organization.

Keywords Balanced scorecard, Small to medium-sized enterprises, Non-profit organizations, Performance management Paper type Research paper Introduction There is a current gap in the literature regarding the implementation of BSC solutions in SMEs within the not for profit sector. Until the seminal paper by Johnson and Kaplan the emphasis of performance management was mainly financially based and the information was not always appropriate for planning and control decisions.

Although this was groundbreaking research and provided a construct for effective performance measurement, the paper was limited in the process for designing a scorecard.

Further research by Kaplan and Norton a, b provided a basis for implementation. This led to research into clearer mapping between strategic and operational activities. Kaplan and Norton coined the term strategy maps and Neely et al.

Strategy maps 101 - Why measures in perspectives always fails

These developments became known as second generation balanced scorecards. More recently the scorecard has further evolved into third generation scorecards Neely et al. International Journal of Productivity Most of the published literature focuses on large private and public sector and Performance Management Vol. Within such pp. Neely and Bourne add that 70 per DOI For effective design, the inter relatedness of the key Balanced performance indicators KPIs should be mapped so that the KPIs are not seen as a disparate number of performance measures.

The implementation issues are the possible scorecard lack of organizational infrastructure, lack of focus management commitment and the framework political issues where the measurement can be viewed as a stick and may result in staff playing the numbers game.

Bourne and Bourne devised a standardised performance pro forma which addressed consistency of KPIs reporting but it would not prevent deliberate manipulation by the user. However, he does argue unsurprisingly that the balanced scorecard is the answer to aligning strategy with operational activities. Performance management in the not for profit sector Since New Labour came to power in the UK inthere has been a drive to improve the effectiveness of public service through the use of private sector principles Radnor and Maguire, In addition, the report published by Gershon in provides a further catalyst for the not for profit sector to adopt a business like approach to service delivery.

Other authors recognize the importance of performance measurement and management within the not for profit sector Wisniewski and Olafsson, ; Radnor and Lovell, ; Johnsen,